Things to Look at (HR Holocaust through art and architecture)

According to this theory, when one uses one’s memory,
an association is made between what is seen and something learned in the past. The more
associations made, the more pleasure one gets from these observations {Adrian Forty, Words and Buildings, A Vocabulary of Modern Architecture (London: Thames & Hudson, 2000), 209-210.]

From the Latin memoria, ‘memory’ and memorialis, ‘serving
as a reminder’, a memorial is directly related to the concept of memory in architecture and is defined as ‘a statue or structure established to remind people of a person or event’ [Oxford Dictionaries. ‘Definition of memorial in English’. Last modified in 2013.

25 Gavriel D. Rosenfeld, Building after Auschwitz, Jewish Architecture and the Memory of the Holocaust (New Haven and
London: Yale University Press), 46-47.

26 Ernst Van Alphen, ‘Deadly Historians: Boltanski’s Intervention in Holocaust Historiography’ in Visual Culture and the
Holocaust, ed. Barbie Zelizer (London: The Athlone Press, 2001), 45-46.
27 Shimon Attie (b. 1957): American visual artist, he uses a variety of media, including photography, site-specific installation,
performance, etc.
28 ‘The Writing on the Wall’, Berlin, 1991.
29 ‘Shoah’, New Yorker Films, 1985.
Berel Lang ‘Second-Sight, Shimon Attie’s Recollection’ in Image and Remembrance, Representation of the Holocaust, ed.
Shelley Hornstein and Florence Jacobowitz (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2003), 25-28.
30 Mariane Hirsh, ‘Surviving Images: Holocaust Photographs and the Work of Postmemory’ in Visual Culture and the
Holocaust, ed. Barbie Zelizer (London: The Athlone Press, 2001), 217-218.


To summarize, five ways of responding to the Holocaust through art can be distinguished: the denial of
art, the use of abstract art to create an ‘art of suffering’, the incorporation of historical documents in art
in order to produce ‘realistic art’, the use of symbols to create ‘metaphoric art’ and finally, the integration
of voids and absence, creating art that can be labeled ‘counter art’.

Ashley, Brett. Unwanted Beauty, Aesthetic pleasure in Holocaust representation. Urbana and Chicago: University
of Illinois Press, 2007.

Bunschoten, Raoul. A passage through Silence and Light, Daniel Libeskind’s Jewish Museum Extension to the
Berlin Museum. London: Black Dog, 1997.

Forty, Adrian. Words and Buildings, A vocabulary of Modern Architecture. London: Thames & Hudson, 2000.
Forty, Adrian and Kuchler Susanne. The Art of Forgetting. Oxford: Oxford Berg, 1999.

Rosenfeld, Gavriel D. Munich and Memory, Architecture, Monuments, and the Legacy of the Third Reich.
Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 2000.

Schneider, Bernhard. Daniel Libeskind Jewish Museum Berlin. Munich: Alois Muller, nd.


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