Issues that arose at gardens by the bay – INGENIA ISSUE 58 MARCH 2014 – pg 25-31

pg 30 – 31 – Determining the necessary air supply and modelling its distribution within the domes was a major challenge. Initial calculations were done using dynamic thermal energy models to predict peak heat gains and mass flow balances to estimate flow rates; these gave the
scale of the cooling required. Subsequently, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling was used as an iterative design tool to detail, analyse and optimise the air flow. The early CFD studies showed that the air surrounding the mountain in the Cloud Forest Dome would become hotter than acceptable at high levels with the displacement system alone. As a result, a hybrid ventilation system was
developed: air is supplied through displacement terminals at the bottom of the building

pg 29 – Even with all the measures to maximise sunlight and minimise solar gain, the studies showed that often, on cloudless days with the sun directly overhead, the heat was enough to burn plants and overload the air conditioning system. The domes needed a variable
shading system. Shading inside the grid shell would have been easiest, but this would have trapped heat at the highest level within the dome. The answer was an ingenious system of retractable external shades across all but the northern faces of the two domes. Some 400 triangular polyester sailcloth shades are rolled up and completely concealed within the lower section of the steel arches when
not in use, and are actively controlled to deploy by cable when required to modulate internal daylight levels to the desired level. An intelligent self‑learning algorithm controls each shade individually, adjusting the shading to matchthe conditions at the time


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