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pg 102 – As environmental designers we are frequently faced with a brief that seeks sustainable outcomes from the delivery of the building or buildings for a predetermined purpose that we cannot control. In these situations, we believe that it falls to us to make the most of the resources at our disposal both form the local climate and environment. In addition, we must endeavour to not just ” do more with less” as buckminster fuller would have said but to seek out and initiate virtuous cycles where the development of the project can be beneficial to local environment and not just less bad.
Within the integrated and highly complex processes and systems that have been instigated for the Gardens by the Bay there is a level of rigour to the sustainable thinking that sets it apart as an exemplar for buildings in the region and around the world.
pg96 – An extensive flue gas scrubbing system in the boiler house of the energy centre uses multiple processes including an electrostatic precipitator to ensure that atmospheric emissions are invisible, harmless and non-toxic. The installation of the carbon steel flue into the Supertree was a significant construction operation as it was installed as a single element.
pg 98 – An important function of any tree or vertical element in a tropical garden is the provision of shade and the super trees were also designed with a view to providing extensive areas of shade to the publicly accessed facilities in the supertree grove. [Need pictures on page 98 in essay]
Sensing Equipment and Controls
Every zone of the biomes includes significant amount of environmental sensing and telemetry including temperature, humidity, radiant temperature and light level sensors to control all aspects of the thermal, radiation and visual environment. The sensors feed information back to control rooms within each biome and to the central control room in the very centre. Within these command and control rooms fully automated BMS controls all the equipment to monitor conditions and manage equipment.
Building Systems- An Engineering Response
[NQ] although form and shading reduced solar gain mechanical had to be done.
- the used of a displacement air supply.. at low level within the occupied zone to limit the volume of the building that requires conditioning thereby reducing plant capacities and energy use. using temp of 18 c rather than 12 .. results in significant energy savings
- The use of desiccant dehumidification system to remove the need for refrigeration-based dehumidification of air.
- The use of direct evaporative humidification (misting_ within the cloud forest dome to prove the very high humidity levels required and enhance cooling performance.
pg 65 – [challenges about the forest heat]. A hybrid ventilation system was developed; this supplies air through displacement terminals at the bottom of the building and at the top of the mountain but at intermediate levels whiting the mountain, jet diffusers are used to drive local mixing thus limiting the localised stratification. Above the mountain, the air is allowed to strify, as in a displacement system, before being extracted and re-circulated back to the basement plant. Sealed ;black box’ rooms inside the mountain use conventional overhead conditioning as these spaces do not connect to the main volume
pg 88 – [talk about the biomass boilers] The horticultural waste from the tree pruning was being landfilled before this arrangement was established and so the process effectively turns a waste stream into an active energy supply that displaces the carbon emissions from utility energy.
pg 91 – The biomass boilers produce two ash streams as a by-product. The first is a fine ash that is high in nitrates and other fertiliser compounds. This ash, once mixed with organic plant waste matter from the gardens, creates a high-quality fertilizer. The second stream of ash contains heavier density particles and is taken off-site to be mixed into concrete or aggregates for the construction industry.
Integrated Design – Biome Structure, Envelope & Building Services.
pg 46 – The competition winning scheme had worked on the assumption that some combination of optimised glazing transparency with the primary steel structural beams acting as fixed shading elements would be sufficient to provide daylight control and limit excess solar gains. The structure was originally conceived as solid fins with the glazing suspended beneath in a simple mullion system. As the analysis work progressed this proved to be too simplistic an assumption. the deep structure obscured too much of the sky vault in cloudy and low-light situation but was also not effective in dealing with high level of solar heat gain at times when the sunlight is normal to the glazed surface. This would have led to comfort issues for occupancy.The main structural member were deliberately placed outside the glazing to help with shading, they have a clear span of up to 12-m in places and so were of considerable depth.
pg 49 – There were a number of different structural solutions including;
- An optimised solid fin design with non-structural secondary glazing elements (competition scheme)
- an external truss system also with non-structural secondary glazing elements
- a grid shell to hold the glazing tied to more slender primary arches.
We evaluated the output data from the models and compared it with the Eden Project Data.
[the third solution] offered the best balance of daylight and solar control. It also turned out to be the most cost and material effective solution to deliver the enclosure.
With the need for high daylight transmission, the use of body tinting of the glass was not an option and so selective coatings were investigated as the preferred option…. [pg 51] the selective double glazed unit which allows approx 65% of the incident daylight frequencies to pass through with only 35% of the solar heat transferred, primarily by filtering the infra-red frequencies from passing into the space.
pg 51 – ETFE which was used at the Eden Project, was also considered as it offered significant weight benefits [however] the coatings were not sufficiently developed to reliably achieve level of selective solar energy reflection that high-performance glass could achieve.
pg53 – By keeping radiant energy outside the building envelope Internal shading behind the high-performance glazing units would have trapped heat at height level .
pg 56 – The shade are triangular in for, like sails, and are cable tensioned. They are completely concealed within the lower section of the ribs when not in use and are actively controlled to deploy when required to modulate internal daylight levels to the desired level
pg 56- The biomes forms were optimised to allow maximum daylight penetration. The form of the Flower Dome was modified to create an overhand to the north facade, which slopes backwards from a peak. This creates a glass face that is inclined outwards at near the same angle as the peak annual radiation for that orientation at the extreme sun angle and hence is a completely self-shading facade, requiring no external shades.