Modernising Paris



the transparent state – pg 25 – The aesthetic goal of the projects to modernize Paris overtly was also certainly a great of contention. To the general public, initial proposals of a glass and steel pyramid in the heart of the 17th century courtyard of the Louvre complex seemed preposterous stylistic arrogance.

pg 27 Public outrage quieted on growing familiarity with the built fact. In the new buildings, the presence of highly advanced glass technologies, both in support systems and the material qualities of glass itself…. The new systems and surfaces (1970) are characterized by technical inventiveness, rather than technological homogenization.

Equally, newer glass construction is now far more responsible to a variety of environmental factors that in previous eras were the basis for strong financial objections.


The relationship of glass to these discourses (fashion , cinema and architecture) relies on a fundamental supposition: the glass window provides a bipolar viewing frame from within and from without, a picture plane that is intrinsically related to the painted canvas, the perspective plan, or,perhaps more closely, the filmic image. From within disengaged interior the ability to capture the surrounding scene and to reflect on it introspectively is nothing but another version of the very same problematic gaze.

**((The definition and effects of the gaze are numerous and diverse. According to Bryson, in “The Gaze”, the basic texts are philosophical and psychoanalytical:sartre (Being and Nothingness) , Lacan (The four Fundamental Concepts of PsychoAnalysis) , and Rorty (Mirror of Nature).  Art historians, however, widened the number of different interpretations. in this short passage explicating the effects of the gaze, I have tried to represent a number of salient ideas that are central to an examination of architectureal consequences within an explicitly political arena



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