Monthly Archives: March 2014

At the time of his death Schinkel’s great unfinished project was his Architektonisches
Lehrbuch (Architectonic Textbook); its place as textbook for the School of Architecture
would be taken by Karl Bötticher’s great three-volume study Die Tektonik der Hellenen
(The Tectonics of the Greeks) published between 1843 and 1852. Bötticher, according
to Frampton, “respectively assimilated the representational to the Greek and the
ontological to the Gothic.” In other words, he ascribed Kernform to Gothic construction
and Kunstform to the Greek ideal; his illustration for doing so could be found on the
Spree in the form of Schinkel’s Bauakademie. Britain and France led the way at this
stage; it was not until much later in the century that Germany and the USA would
challenge their technical superiority in constructional innovation. In London the prime
example was the Crystal Palace (1851) by Joseph Paxton; in Paris it was perhaps Henri
Labrouste’s Bibliotheque Ste Geneviève (1843–1850).

The essay focuses on enclosed enviroments of glasshouses.

From the view point of Paul Scheerbart 

Introduce essay with bruno tauts glass pavillion – talk about that , what movements were surrounding that (deutsch werkbund, expressionism)

Refer to Paul Scheerbart. Through the categories of Paul Scheerbart in Glass Architecture, this is how to structure the essay, and say this is what im going to do etc..

Refer back gothic architecture and arabia quickly but then onto Joseph paxton, richard turner, kibble etc, maybe Brunel? talk about the hot houses.

Then talk about Crystal Palace, use of glass as an environment away from the smog (henrik reference), the use of a garden to exhibition. the first use of prefabrication, refer to grimshaw ??

Back to scheerbart maybe and talk about the use of structure for a building. glass bricks,  timber frame, iron frame rust etc.Refer this back to buckminster fuller and structure. Mention new materials being used which is outlined in Scheerbarts work, (although acrylic burns ooops). so talk about bucminster fuller with his work in the expo, mention that exhbitions are the grand gestures of structure (refer back to crystal palace).Also mention that fuller designed the bubble over manhattan as a futurist approach.

Back to Scheerbart about making futurish approach. Liken this to his hillside places made out of glass… Also mention about materiality and how he thinks things are going to change. Then talk about Grimshaw and how he has been influenced in the design for the Eden Project ie richard turner and Joseph paxton, and fuller. Talk about how he has enclosed environments and how he has used new materials which were outlined in Scheerbarts proposal. Talk about this in Norman Fosters Botanical Garden in Whales and how this has works

Conclude by talking about my own project and how it relates… being influenced by Joseph Paxton and Grimshaw. Then Mention about Scheerbart and what is waiting for the future of glass architecture. Talk about Grimshaws design for the new Biome at Eden, Nice quote to end. 



Works Cited

Ascher-Barnstone, Deborah. “Transparency.” Journal of Architectural Education 56, no. 4 (2003): 3-5.

Banham, Reyner, and Mary Banham. A critic writes essays by Reyner Banham. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.

Berlyn, Peter, Charles Fowler, and England London. The Crystal Palace its architectural history and constructive marvels. London: J. Gilbert, 1851.

Betsky, Aaron. Landscrapers: building with the land. New York, N.Y.: Thames & Hudson, 2002.

Bletter, Rosemarie Haag. “The Interpretation of the Glass Dream-Expressionist Architecture and the History of the Crystal Metaphor.” JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY OF ARCHITECTURAL HISTORIANS 40, no. 1 (1981): 20-43.

Colquhoun, Alan. Modern architecture. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Colquhoun, Kate. A thing in disguise: the visionary life of Joseph Paxton. London: Fourth Estate, 2003.

Fazio, Michael W., Marian Moffett, and Lawrence Wodehouse. A world history of architecture. 2nd ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2008.

Fierro, Annette. The glass state the technology of the spectacle, Paris, 1981-1998. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2003.

Forty, Adrian. Words and buildings: a vocabulary of modern architecture. New York: Thames & Hudson, 2000.

Frampton, Kenneth. Modern architecture: a critical history. 3rd ed. London: Thames and Hudson, 1992.

Gardens, Kew, and F. N. Hepper. Kew, gardens for science & pleasure. London: H.M.S.O., 1982.

Giedion, S.. Space, time and architecture; the growth of a new tradition.. 5th ed. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1967.

Hertzberger, Herman. Lessons for students in architecture. Rotterdam: Uitgeverij 010 Publishers, 1991.

Muthesius, Hermann. Stilarchitektur und Baukunst: Wandlungen der Architektur im XIX. Jahrhundert und ihr heutiger Standpunkt. Nendeln/Liechtenstein: Kraus Reprint, 1976.

Pailos, Jorge. Architecture’s historical turn: phenomenology and the rise of the postmodern. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2010.

Pearman, Hugh , Andrew Whalley, and Nicholas Grimshaw. The architecture of Eden. London: Eden Project Books in association with Grimshaw, 2003.

Scheerbart, Paul. Glasarchitektur,. Berlin: Verlag der Sturm, 1914.

Watkin, David. A history of Western architecture. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1986.

Zung, Thomas T. K.. Buckminster Fuller: anthology for the new millennium. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2001.



So good it deserves a new post and quote: 

102 – The transformation of the Earths Surface

pg 71 – So many ideas constantly sound to us like a fairytale, when they are not really fantastic or utopian at all. 80 years  ago, the steam railway came, and undeniably transformed the face of the earth. From what has been said so far the earths surface will once again be transformed, this time by glass architecture. if it comes, a metamorphisis will occur. 


The present brick ‘culture’ of the city, which we all deplore, is due to the railway. Glass architecture will only come if the city as we know it goes. It is completely clear to all those who care about the future of our civilisation that this dissolution must take place. To labor the point is useless


pg 74 , 111- glass culture

After all the above, we can indeed speak of a glass culture. The new glass environment will completely transform mankind, and its remains only to wish that the new glass culture will not find too many opponents. It is to be hoped, in fact, that glass culture will have ever fewer opponents; to cling to the old is many matters a good thing in this way at any rate the old is preserved. We, too , want to cling to the old – the pyramids of ancient Egypt should most certainly not be abolished. But we also want to the new all the resources at our disposal; more power to them!


(only research) dont quote: 


The nineteenth century is accepted as the era to find the roots of twentieth
century architecture. In order to prove his assertion, he used analogies between
the buildings from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries; such as Henri
Labrouste‟s Library of St. Geneviève of 1843 and Le Corbusier‟s Cook House
of 192645, or Eiffel‟s Building of Paris Exhibition of 1878 and Gropius‟s
Bauhaus of 192646. However, Giedion doesn‟t forget to mention that the
nineteenth century was still too close to that time to have a sound judgment. If
we question why he had chosen France, the answer would be that Giedion
thought the French played the leading role in the nineteenth century
construction. In addition to that explanation, Giedion claims that „to grasp the
emerging reality and to transform it into a utopia is the opposite method to the
cultural idealism that dominated Germany in the nineteenth century, which
neglected reality in order to pursue emanations of pure spirit‟.47

Along with industry, introduction of mechanically manufactured rolled iron
into architectural construction, Giedion argues, was one of the beginning points
of the new architecture. The characteristics of iron, its high capacity to bear
high stress in most minimal dimensions leads to new laws of design. Those
new materials and new methods introduced to architecture had one
requirement: they should be filtered from aesthetical concerns at first. This
filtering is probably a consequence of the interaction with the Bauhaus again


Pg 3  – Visionary architects at the beginning of the
century like Bruno Taut and other members of the
German Crystal Chain group posited futuristic uto-
pian societies whose progressive cultural values were
echoed in the transparent glass architecture.4 Writ-
ers like Arthur Korn simply saw the transparent
potential inherent in glass construction as the most
modern of building techniques.5 For Korn, buildings
constructed using material and spatial transparency
were revolutionary; building transparently therefore
had a moral or ethical imperative attached to i



The Glass Paradise

pg 33 – It is in Germany, in the months immediately preceding and immediately following the first World War, that we have to turn to find that prophetic tone, to the period bracketed by the completion of the glass wall of the Faguswerke, late in 1913, and the second, 1920, glass-tower project of Mies Van der Rohe. Both of these are accounted work of the part of reason, yet both, on examination, are found to have some curious cousins. Mies’s glass-towers have been justly called Expressionist, while their contemporaries, from Gropius side, include the first Bauhaus proclamation with its gushing rhetoric about buildings ‘like crystal symbols’ and a three-spired gothic cathedral on its cover.


Post war Belin

pg 33 there was an abberation that gripped a generation, and must have more in it than meets the eye. In fact, there is a great deal in it, a great deal of the Modern Movement’s disreputablel ancestry, but as far as the glass legend is concerned, there are two dominant strains, both traceable back to the Werkbund’s Exhibition in Cologne in 1914. The importance of that exhibition for the glass dream is known , and acknowledged in every history by an illustration of one of the staircases of Gropius’s office block in its glass hemicylinder. But that is only half the story

(talking about scheerbart)

pg 35 – Begins with something that was common knowledge to scheerbart and most of his readers, the glazed conservatory. This he envisaged becoming ever larger and more important until it had to be emancipated from the house, and set up independently in the garden. The glass-world citizen then abandons his old house and moves into the conservatory, which is aesthetically linked to the garden…. As a habitable environment, the conservatory-house, which Scheerbart seems to envisage as something like Taut’s glass Pavillion.


pg 36 “We stand at the beginning, not the end, of a culture-period. 

We await entirely new miracles of technology and chemistry.

Let us never forget it.”


pg 37 – But having set itself up as something more than a style, as a discipline of pure reason, it had to double-talk fast and frequently to explain its obsession with certain materials, particularly glass and that smooth white reinforced concrete that never existed outside architects’ dreams and had to be faked in reality with white rendering. Clearly, these materials were symbolic, they were totemic signs of power in the tribe of architects. 

pg 38 – (about scheerbart) Not only were his architectural writings known and in varying degrees influential among the generation of Gropius and Mies van der Rohe, but at a time when many spoke of steel and glass, he also spoje of water as the natural complement of glass. ..