What I have gathered from reading the Book.
Old Major represented the ideology of Marx and Lenin. He proposed that there should be a revolution of the proletariat and create a communist society. Ie the animals over throw the farmer and have the farm to themselves. After this is done they set up commandments and slogans to tell them what rules to live by, Which is hard to understand because the whole reason why they overthrew the farmer was to live a rule free life. However like Marx said after a revolution there needs to be a form of dictatorship for it to work before going to communism. In Animal farm this was the Pigs, In particular Snowball who represents leon Trotsky and Napoleon who represents Stalin. They provide the motto that
- four legs good two legs bad
1. Whatever goes upon 2 legs is an enemy.
2. Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, is a friend.
3. No animal shall wear clothes.
4. No animal shall sleep in a bed.
5. No animal shall drink alcohol.
6. No animal shall kill any other animal.
7. All animals are equal.
The proletariats Ie the workers are all the animals but are mainly directed at a horse named boxer. He is a hard worker but not very intelligent he goes with the rules as he does not have the ability to argue.
As the story progresses Snowball and Napoleon become more and more dictatorial saying that the apples in the Orchard should be only for the them and not the other animals. Squealer another pig that represents the Pravda a russian newspaper which makes up reasons why snowball and Napoleon deserve the apples saying that they do not like the taste of apples but they have to eat them for energy for their minds. If they do not eat all the apples they will not have the energy and the farmer will regain the land. As you an see these are lies for the pigs to be able to do what they want and the animals to do otherwise.
There is another horse called Mollie who represents the middle class or the bourgeois as the book shows the horse making alliance with other farmers it shows that the bourgeois do not like the idea of “communism”
Further through the book Napoleon ie Starling forces Snowball “Leon Trotsky” out of the farm and takes a lead role.
I have also noticed that Animal farm compares to 1984 in the sense that they change the past to suit the present. By this I mean in 1984 the news articles etc are change to seem that everything is correct in the preset. In animal farm one the commandments “No animal shall sleep in a bed. ” was change to “No animal shall sleep in a bed with sheets”. This has been changed so that the pigs could sleep in the house.
Another comparison between animal farm and 1984 is that there is a hate figure. In 1984 there is Eurasia and the 2 minutes of hate where the society believes that they are on the good side and they will work harder etc to beat the opposition . In Animal farm this is the same. Napoleon makes propaganda that Snowball is a traitor and that he sabotaged the windmill.
On page 73 its is the first indication of crimes committed that are false. Just like 1984 in Animal farm people confess to crimes the have not committed. “Without further prompting they confessed that they had been secretly in touch with snowball”
Napoleon kills these so called traitors which goes again the sixth commandment… had that not changed to “No animal shall kill any other animal without cause.”
Its as if Animal farm is still a hell hole but it is a lesser of 2 evils when compared to mr Jone’s Farm.
Like 1984 propaganda is used to make up that they are doing much better than they actually are . Squealer in page 79 talks about how the food stuff increase to 200% then 300% then to 500%
A new name is formed far Napoleon which is called “our leader,comrade Napoleon;” which directly goes against the idea of communism.
The pigs then find that there is whisky in the house and consume it all and get drunk on page 91-92. They also wear hats. This goes against two of the commandments…. unless one of the commandments was “No animal shall drink alcohol to excess” .
on page 96 the young litter is kept away from the rest of the animals. Like they are held a higher regard than the others. It is related to that of the Aryan race.
going back to the start of the book when the dogs are taken away from their parents and come back as these agressive animals is reminiscent of the thought police children/ spies that are in 1984. Also this refers to that of the Nazi youth etc.
on Page 99 the society goes away from a communist society and “opts” for a republic, which means that they need a president ie Napoleon obviously.
going of at a bit of a tangent again
More character analysis here;
Old Benjamin which is a donkey represents the aged population of russia or the Menshevik who were a faction of the Russian socialist movement. The animal is the most wisest and is very cynical about what the pigs are doing
Moses the Raven who is good friends with Farmer Jones Aka the Tsar represent the old religion in which I mean the Orthodox church. He speaks about sugarcandy mountain which is animals version of paradise.
anyway back to the story. On page 101 Boxers works to hards and falls downs.
pg 104 – Boxer is meant to be going to the hospital set up by Napoleon however the van which he was driven away in was called the slaughter house van. Squealer who represent the Pravda says that it was a vet van but they purchase the slaughter van and dint change the sign. p.s Boxer died.
“somehow it seems as though the farm grown richer without making the animals themselves any richer – except, of course, for the pigs and the dogs. “
Years later most of the animals who were around before the revolution are now gone/dead so the animals only believe what Squealer and Napoleon say as the truth. This is reminiscent of many dystopian novels like Book of eli and 1984 where there is a great war or something which means that the population has no knowledge of the past so can only accept what they see in the present.
on page 133 “it was a pig walking on his hind legs.”
After this Clover goes to the shed where the commandments are and gets old Benjamin to read them out. All they say now are
“ALL ANIMALS ARE EQUAL BUT SOME ANIMALS ARE MORE EQUAL THAN OTHERS”
the pigs then do what they want, drunk, smoke , wear clothes , get humans round play cards (ie gamble).
they also start talking about how the lower animals represent the lower classes and how it was a cooperative enterprise. The title deeds, which were in his own possession, were owned by the pigs jointly.
The name reverts back to manor farm and animals will not call eachother comrades
the green flag with the horn and hoof will be just green and the skull of “a boar” will be disposed of
in the end the animals cant dinstiguish between pig and man and man and pig
- Animal Farm (modi8139.wordpress.com)
- Animal Farm: The End (lee14324blog.wordpress.com)
- Animal Farm – A Critical Reception (bradsowter.wordpress.com)