((notes taken from Brave New World , History science and dystopia)
“It is in the sphere of politics that the difference between the two romanticism is most immediately apparent. The revolutionaries of a hundred years ago were democrats and individualists. For them the supreme political value was that personal liberty, which Mussolini has described as a putrefying corpse and which the Bolsheviks deride as an ideal invented by and for the leisured bourgeoisie. The men who agitated for the English Reform Bill of 1832, who engineered the Parisian revolution of 1830, were liberals, individualism and freedom were the ultimate goods which they pursued. The aim of the Communist Revolution in Russia was to deprive the individual of every right, every vestige of personal liberty (including the liberty of thought and the right to possess a soul ), and to transform him into a component cell of the great “collective Man” – that single mechanical monster who, in the Bolshevik millennium, is to take place of the unregimented hordes of ‘ soul-encumbered’ individuals who now inhabit the earth … To the Bolshevik idealist, Utopia is indistinguishable from one of Mr Henry Ford’s factories.” – Huxley, Music at night, 212,215,219
pg 54. There conjunction of liberalism, communism, fascism, and the American industrial capitalist Henry Ford, is no accident. The new or modern romanticism was a collectivist ideology, exclusively materialistic and inherently anti liberal.
chapter 7 – ideology and the power in Huxley’s ultimate revolution
pg 56. As the products of an increasing pluralist society, one in which the traditional framework of a universally held religion had collapsed in the face of challenges from science and technology , especially in the political industrial revolution of the late 18th and 19th centuries, they claimed to know how best to organize and transform society.
pg . 58 – Brave new World is a vision of a future dominated by instrumental reason, by carefully circumscribed technology, and by a class of administrative technocrats who claim to understand human desire. Such a select scientific elite is the ultimate expression of new romantic values, The Utopia it creates is a grotesque projection into the future of what Huxley saw as his contemporaries’ misplaced faith in technical and bureaucrats expertise that could only result in the “spiritual self-mutilation” of the race
Chapter 10 – History and Psychology in the World State
pg 88. Huxley made extensive use of Freudian ideas, populating his narratives with characters twisted and warped by neurosis and, occasionally, by psychotic fears and anxieties.
– Huxley utilizes Freudian concepts in his characterization of John, the Savage, but in the introductory chapters the educational techniques of the World Stare are grounded in the behaviorist psychology of Ivan Pavlov (Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (Russian: Ива́н Петро́вич Па́влов; 26 September [O.S. 14 September] 1849 – 27 February 1936) was a Russian physiologist. From his childhood days Pavlov demonstrated intellectual brilliance along with an unusual energy which he named “the instinct for research”. Inspired by the progressive ideas which D. I. Pisarev, the most eminent of the Russian literary critics of the 1860s and I. M. Sechenov, the father of Russian physiology, were spreading, Pavlov abandoned his religious career and decided to devote his life to science. In 1870 he enrolled in the physics and mathematics faculty at the University of Saint Petersburg to take the course in natural science. Ivan Pavlov devoted his life to the study of physiology and sciences, making several remarkable discoveries and ideas that were passed on from generation to generation. He won the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1904.) and J.B Watson (John Broadus Watson (January 9, 1878 – September 25, 1958) was an American psychologist who established the psychological school of behaviorism. Watson promoted a change in psychology through his address, Psychology as the Behaviorist Views it, which was given at Columbia University in 1913. Through his behaviorist approach, Watson conducted research on animal behavior, child rearing, and advertising. In addition, he conducted the controversial “Little Albert” experiment)
Chapter 13 – Sigmund Freud, Jean Jacques Rousseau
pg.116-117. In his Social Contact (1762) and The discourse on the Origin of Inequality (1755) , The French Philosopher Jean Jacques Rousseau theorized that humanity once existed in a prepolitical state of nature. Within such a hypothetical setting men and women were naturally good. Such a primitive individual or noble save was corrupted by society, in particular, by the institutions of marriage and private property that were responsible for inequality, rivalry, and war.
pg 118 – Brave New World – It is a story about the acquisition of self hood. It is also an emotionally charged narrative about personal and social rejection told to Bernard Marx, who himself feels rejected and marginalized. Finally, it is a story that would not be permitted in The World State because of its stress on ideologically prohibited subjects like motherhood and personal experience.